South China Sea Reef Destroyers Want Your Money

According to a recent FT.com article the company responsible for most of the destruction of coral reefs and reef habitat in the disputed Spratly Islands is listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange and is planning an overseas listing.

China Communications Construction Company (HK:1800), a large state-owned infrastructure group, announced in March that it was integrating its three dredging assets into a new company, CCCC Dredging, which it would eventually list overseas. That entity was set up in Shanghai’s Free Trade Zone on Wednesday.

China’s dredging programme has created about half a dozen islands in the South China Sea with deepwater harbours and at least one airstrip.

In the past 18 months, according to the US defence secretary, at least 2,000 acres of land have been reclaimed — more than has been done in 60 years by other claimants to the territory, including Vietnam, Malaysia and the Philippines.

Satellite images analysed by IHS Jane’s, the defence consultancy, show that Tianjin Dredging Company, one of CCCC Dredging’s three subsidiaries, operates most of the giant barges that have been digging sand from the seabed and piling it on remote coral atolls with names such as Mischief Reef, Suba Reef and Fiery Cross.

The flotation plans are curious for secretive Tianjin. A listing would require greater transparency and focus more attention on its activities.

In March CCCC said in a filing to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, where it has been listed since 2006, that it “intends to seek listing of CCCC Dredging overseas at an appropriate market timing”.

Hongkongers and potential overseas investors should be aware that CCCC is not an ethical investment. 

Source: FT,com June 11th, 2015

Whale and Dolphin Strandings and Oil and Gas Exploration in the South China Sea

In May of this year CNOOC reported a mid-sized oil field discovery, the Liuhua 20-2 field, in the Eastern South China Sea. Liuhua 20-2 is located in the Pearl River Mouth basin of the South China Sea, at an average water depth of about 390 m. The discovery well (LH20-2-1) was drilled to a depth of about 2,970 m.

This is only the latest South China Sea oil and gas field to be opened. In the last decade a large number of fields have been discovered, explored and commercially exploited. Hong Kong in fact receives some of its gas via a direct pipeline from a gas field southeast of Hainan Island.

Oil and gas prospecting, however, relies on seismic surveys. This involves sending powerful sound or shock waves through the water to the seabed to measure and analyse the echo received back. For the echo to give valuable data on lower rock layers they must be powerful enough to penetrate through thick sediment and into the rocks below. There are a few ways that can be done some including TNT or electricity to create imploding plasma bubbles. But the result is always a loud sound or explosion.

Oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea (via Energy-pedia, May 2014)

In the last few years Hong Kong has seen a number of more unusual whale strandings including deep-water species like sperm whales, Pygmy sperm whales and short-finned pilot whales, as well as other whales normally rarely if ever seen in Hong Kong such as Omura’s whales. Toothed whales rely heavily on echolocation (seeing by sound) for navigation, so the idea arises whether increased seismic survey activity in the South China Sea is part of the cause for these strandings.

Unfortunately, I am not aware of any scientific investigations into the effects of seismic surveys on whales and dolphins in the South China Sea. Research in this area is very difficult because it is hard to track whales and dolphins in the first place, and because their navigation sense is poorly understood. There are also multiple possible reasons for strandings, including disease and injuries so making a causal link between seismic surveys and whale strandings is very difficult even in the best of circumstances. However, intuitively, it seems right to restrict the use of loud explosions in the habitat of rare marine animals with very sensitive hearing organs that are also essential for their navigation. Particularly as sound conducts much better in water than in air.

When I took part in a research cruise to the Weddell Sea in Antarctica (back in 2005) there was actually a restriction on even the scientific use of small seismic surveys for marine geological baseline research. Special permits had to be applied for from the relevant government ddepartments of participating nations – in the end the only country that granted a permit was Russia.

There are also (as far as I am aware) reasonable restrictions on using seismic surveys in the North Atlantic by Europe, the U.S. and Canada, that require observers to check (as far as possible) that no whales are in the area before the survey starts.

I am not aware of any such restrictions in the South China Sea, although my knowledge of PRC laws and regulations is poor and perhaps such rules exist after all (feel free to point out any errors in the comments below).

Spotted Seal Pup Dies at Ocean Park

Ocean Park is investigating what the accidental death of a year-old male spotted seal.

The seal died during an incident at about 2.30pm on Monday (1/6/2015) during a backwash cycle on filters at the Polar Adventure attraction which opened in 2012 and features different species of penguins, walruses, seals and sealions. In subtropical Hong Kong the energy-intensive attraction is kept at 8-10 degrees C for species native to the South Pole, with 15 to 17 degrees C for North Pole species.

The accident appeared to be the result of the animal becoming trapped against an outlet during the backwash operation, but the exact cause of death had not been confirmed after an examination of the body was carried out on Monday.

The dead seal had been born in captivity at the park.

Animal deaths are quite a frequent occurrence at Ocean Park. In 2014, 59 fish died at the Ocean Aquarium due to human error. Also in 2014, 2 rare Chinese sturgeons died from viral infections.

HKD 4.3M Grants Won for Tolo Harbor (吐露港) Biodiversity & Ecology Research

More than 25 local marine biologists have been awarded a grant that will enable them to study the marine biodiversity and ecology of the Tolo Harbour and channel.

Tolo Harbor is a semi-enclosed body of water in the northeast of Hong Kong linked to the sea only by the narrow Tolo Channel. The Tolo Channel and Harbor were infamous in the 1980’s for terrible water pollution, fould smells and red tides. A rapid expansion of urban areas on the firnge of Tolo Harbor with direct, untreated sewage discharges into the Harbor caused large scale eutrophication. The sewage outfalls provided nutrients feeding massive algal blooms which subsequently died and their decomposition by microorganisms used up so much oxygen that the water and sediment became anoxic, killing fish and many other marine organism (again feeding oxygen demand form decomposition) and causing foul smelling water. The problem was made much worse because Tolo Harbor is not very well flushed with new oxygenated water from the sea. It was eventually improved by providing proper modern sewage treatment and recognizing the particular vulnerablility of the area to eutrophication.

The HK$4.3 million will benefit the Joint University Consortium for Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation of Marine Ecosystems and comes via the Environment and Conservation Fund (ECF). The ECF was established by the government in 1994 as part of its long-term commitment to environmental protection and conservation and received an injection of $5 billion in 2013, to serve as seed money generating an annual investment returns to support green projects and activities. The ECF has so far funded over 4,290 educational, research, and other projects and activities in relation to environmental and conservation matters.

Despite the funding being delayed for about two years, the proposal was approved last month and the 18-month project will commence later this year. The first stage of the two-phase study is aimed at finding the current ecological status of the area as well as the economic value of marine resources. The team will establish a comprehensive species database of the area. Kevin Ho King-yan, a senior research assistant at the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Hong Kong, said the proposal was aired at least two rounds of interviews, possibly because of the large amount of money required.

“Usually, project funding proposals to the conservation fund average around the hundred thousand mark, but this time it is in the millions,” he said. The announcement comes after an international conference, jointly organized by the Swire Institute of Marine Science and the University of Hong Kong School of Biological Sciences, kicked off at HKU yesterday.

More than 280 participants from 26 countries have come together for the four-day conference to discuss issues such as coastal development and marine conservation. More than 20 marine scientists from overseas and the mainland are attending. Organizing committee chairman Kenneth Leung Mei-yee said experts from across the globe need to work together to map out a plan to protect marine biodiversity. “We need experts from all different sectors to join hands together to uncover what we have and how we can protect them and how we can make sustainable use of these resources,” Leung said.

Note: The Hoi Ha Wan marine park – noted for its corals – is located at the seaward mouth of the Tolo Channel.

Source: The Standard 2nd June 2015